Planning and provision of patient-oriented health care services based on the opinions, needs, and preferences of patients, those that care for them, and the community, is a key challenge in the health systems of developed countries, and it is an essential element in enhancing and improving health care systems in order to gain public approval and confidence.
First, we illustrate that pain management and its undertreatment are indeed ethical issues.
Patients were reminded to send the questionnaires two, six, twelve and twenty-six weeks after the consultation by email or phone just before the correct time and, if necessary, again two weeks later.
Baseline measurements, potential confounders and the manipulation check were assessed through questionnaires completed by all patients before and immediately after the consultation. In fact, the curative model, immersed in the biases of dualism in medicine, has been the subject of critique, as it appears to create a hostile environment for the ideal care of severely ill and dying patients.
In virtue-based ethics, the point of scrutiny lies in the inner character of the actor, whereas in care-based ethics, the focus is relational, ie, how virtues are lived out in specific relationships, particularly unequal relationships in which certain members are vulnerable.
Finally, we discuss possible directions forward that will hopefully improve ethical decision making in pain management. In this case, by acquiring knowledge, skills, and self-confidence, patients will be able to take care of their own health and manage to live life competently. Decision talk refers to the task of arriving at decisions that reflect the informed preferences of patients, guided by the experience and expertise of health professionals.
At present, the findings related to clinical outcomes are scarce and unconvincing [ 16 ]. Older people's preferences for involvement in their own care: a qualitative study in primary health care in 11 European countries. In Eldh study, it is considered as being trusting, understanding and preserving feeling of control and recognizing responsibility of oneself as a patient 13 Table 1.
Any effort to improve pain management will necessitate working not only at institutional, regulatory, and policy levels but also, simultaneously and explicitly, at the conceptual one.