Moral aspects of the human genome project
Many hospitals have devised information protection systems to enhance the confidentiality of genetic information in much the same way as they have for protecting information on patients' HIV seropositivity status. The project was initiated as just a pure research program to study how DNA functions and how human phenotype varied according to genotype.
The decision was made that a DNA sample would be obtained from four individuals. This line of reasoning has led the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to recommend that European Union countries renegotiate the agreed Directive that allows the patenting of human genes that are isolated from the body and applicable to industry, and specifically prohibit the patenting of human genes.
In one well known case in the United States, the company Human Genome Sciences obtained a patent on a gene that was subsequently discovered by a different researcher to be an entry portal through which the AIDS virus infects cells.
Regulation has thus slowed down the progress of research but not prevented it. Many feel that such important information regarding the essence of life should be available to all mankind without a cost, but unfortunately the research required to obtain that information is very costly.
Scientists over decades have explored and mapped lands, oceans and the heavens with the expectation of increasing our awareness of the environment in which we live. PPAB has been working with payers both private insurers and also the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services on the issue of reimbursement for new genetic and genomic tests. Discrimination One of the problems some fear might result from knowledge of the human genome is the emergence of a whole population of socially marginalized individuals, unable to obtain a job, a family, insurance, or health care and stigmatized by the rest of society. Insurance companies are on record as saying that if genetic information was available, they would use it in their risk assessment. Genetic tests may also be beneficial to people that have mutations at certain loci that make them particularly susceptible to an environmentally induced disease. Its primary goal is a listing and location of our genes — the single unit of heredity responsible for how we develop from conception, how we grow and mature, how we live, and how we die. He has also endorsed an Act, introduced in by a Senator and a member of Congress, that would extend such protection to the private sector.
Various groups around the world have been working on individual chromosomes and the sequencing of these is at different stages of completion. In Newfoundland, political leaders are apparently coming to the conclusion that Newfoundlanders should maintain control over their unique genome.
Elsi human genome project
Article 13 of the Convention states that "an intervention seeking to modify the human genome may only be undertaken for preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic purposes and only if its aim is not to introduce any modification in the genome of any descendants. A DNA database could contain much more information on individuals, both guilty and innocent, than does the current system of taking fingerprints. This too may have ethical implications because we are correcting a deficiency that was present at birth, thus altering the course of nature. I feel genetic diversity is what allows a species to survive despite changes in environment. When the American genome project was formed the question of how to obtain a representative sample was raised. The genome itself, at six billion nucleotides long, is far too big to sequence as a whole. And how can the valid consent we obtain now from the index patient ever adequately apply to alterations that affect people in future generations? A private company split from the public project, however, and began sequencing DNA segments in order to patent them.
In forming proteins, the DNA molecule is decoded as a series of three letter words called codons. On the other hand, could genetic disposition be used as a defence on the grounds that the crime was really the fault of the gene, not the person?
Ethical legal and social issues of human genome project ppt
Thus, they could potentially avoid the disease by avoiding the environment that could cause the disorder. Genetic information The second general category consists of ethical questions pertaining to the acquisition and use of genetic information. Newborns are routinely tested for PKU without the explicit consent of parents. Multiplex testing will become possible in which, at a single setting, a wide variety of genetic diseases can be screened simultaneously. The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project HGP is an international effort, coordinated by the United States Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health, that aims to determine the sequence of every nucleotide in the human genome and to identify all the genes contained within the genome. This form of study, which is referred to as structural genomics, is a huge undertaking. After all, humans have eradicated the smallpox virus from the world, why not diseases with genetic components? The American society seems to feel that since they have funded the research through their tax dollars, they should receive this information free of charge. View this list of interesting developments in clinical implementation, pharmacogenomics, oncology, and more. In trying to eradicate a certain variation, are we demeaning those in the population who currently carry the gene? The Gene Letter. Photograph: Bradley Smith.
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