The main concepts of the behaviorist perspective theory
Behavioral theory pdf
Teleological: Post-Skinnerian, purposive, close to microeconomics. Quine made use of a variety of behaviorism, influenced by some of Skinner's ideas, in his own work on language. In logical behaviorism as held, e. The behaviorist movement began in when John Watson wrote an article entitled 'Psychology as the behaviorist views it,' which set out a number of underlying assumptions regarding methodology and behavioral analysis: Basic Assumptions All behavior is learned from the environment: Behaviorism emphasizes the role of environmental factors in influencing behavior, to the near exclusion of innate or inherited factors. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions. Outside of psychology, parents, teachers, animal trainers, and many others make use of basic behavioral principles to help teach new behaviors and discourage unwanted ones. Skinner was an influential thinker responsible for introducing operant conditioning and schedules of reinforcement. Other thinkers, such as Carl Rogers and the other humanistic psychologists , believed that behaviorism was too rigid and limited, failing to take into consideration personal agency. It frequently involves processes such as shaping rewarding closer approximations to the desired behavior and chaining breaking a task down into smaller parts and then teaching and chaining the subsequent steps together. Watson's approach was much influenced by the work of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who had stumbled upon the phenomenon of classical conditioning learned reflexes in his study of the digestive system of the dog, and subsequently investigated the phenomena in detail. For example, if a parent rewards their child with praise every time they pick up their toys, the desired behavior is consistenly reinforced. He often described even his own behavior as a product of his phylogenetic history, his reinforcement history which includes the learning of cultural practices interacting with the environment at the moment.
Behavioral psychology differs from other perspectives. Gilbert Ryle defended a distinct strain of philosophical behaviorism, sketched in his book The Concept of Mind. Watson 's classic paper, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It.
His approach has been called, among other things, purposive behaviorism. This was famously attacked by the linguist Noam Chomsky, who presented arguments for the bankruptcy of Skinner's approach in the domain of language and in general. Molar behaviorists argue that standard molecular constructs such as "associative strength" are such fictitious proximal causes that simply take the place of molar variables such as rate of reinforcement.
Watson launches the behavioral school of psychology, publishing an article, Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Clark Hull was a psychologist who utilized drive theory to explain learning and motivation.
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